Electronic Journal of Academic and Special Librarianship

v.7 no.1 (Spring 2006)

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Reshaping the World of Scholarly Communication—Open Access and the Free Online Scholarship Movement:  Open Access Statements, Proposals, Declarations, Principles, Strategies, Organizations, Projects, Campaigns, Initiatives, and Related Items — A Webliography

Compiled by Paul G. Haschak, Associate Professor and Collection Development Librarian
Linus A. Sims Memorial Library, Southeastern Louisiana University

Since World War II, we have seen a proliferation of scholarly materials.  In particular, there has been a tremendous growth in the size and cost of the primary journal literature. 

With prices continuing to rise at a rate greater than the general price index, the current scholarly communication system is becoming more and more unaffordable.

The rise in the cost of serial subscriptions has forced academic libraries over the last several decades to cancel existing serial titles, add fewer and fewer new serial titles, and buy fewer and fewer books.

In is apparent, that the crisis in the scholarly communication system not only threatens the well being of libraries, but also it threatens our academic faculty’s ability to do world-class research.

With current technologies, we now have, for the first time in history, the tools necessary to effect change ourselves.

We must do everything in our power to change the current scholarly communication system and promote open access to scholarly articles.

1.  Issues and Challenges

“Language Related Open Archives:  Impact on Scholarly Communities and Academic Librarianship” by Jung-ran Park

“The Next Step in Scholarly Communication:  Is the Traditional Journal Dead?” by Jeanne Galvin.

“Open Access in the Real World:  Confronting Economic and Legal Reality” by Rick Anderson

“Open Access to Scientific Publications:  An Analysis of the Barriers to Change” by B. C. Bjork

“Scholarly Communication:  Issues and Challenges,” slide show by Mary M. Case, ARL Office of Scholarly Communication.

“Scholars Under Siege:  The Scholarly Communication Crisis,” from ARL, ACRL, SPARC

2.  Open Access Statements, Proposals, Declarations, Principles, and Strategies

NEAR (National Electronic Article Repository) Proposal, Oct. 1998, “Moving with Dispatch to Resolve the Scholarly Communication Crisis:  From Here to NEAR” by David E. Shulenburger, ARL Proceedings 133.   “My proposal is simple:  We must find a way of requiring that when a manuscript prepared by a U.S. faculty member is accepted for publication by a scholarly journal, a portion of the copyright of that manuscript be retained for inclusion in a single, publicly accessible repository, after a lag following publication in the journal.”

Budapest Open Access Initiative (BOAI), Dec. 2001, from a meeting convened in Budapest by the Open Society Institute (OSI) and their resulting statement, Feb. 2002, “To achieve open access to scholarly journal literature, we recommend two complementary strategies, I.  Self-Archiving . . . II.  Open –access Journals . . . ”

Glasgow Declaration, approved by the Governing Board of IFLA March 2002, proclaimed by the council of IFLA (International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions) Aug. 2002, latest revision Sept, 2004.  “The Glasgow Declaration on Libraries, Information Services and Intellectual Freedom.”   “IFLA proclaims the fundamental right of human beings both to access and to express information without restriction.”

Bethesda Statement on Open Access Publishing, June 2003, from a meeting of major private fund givers of biomedical research, at the headquarters of the Howard Hughes Medical Institute in Chevy Chase, Maryland.  “The purpose of this document is to stimulate discussion within the biomedical research community on how to proceed, as rapidly as possible, to the widely held goal of providing open access to the primary scientific literature.”

ACRL (Association of College and Research Libraries) Principles and Strategies for the Reform of Scholarly Communication, approved June 2003, last revised Nov, 2005, from the ACRL division of the American Library Association, principles and strategies listed under the headings “Scholarly Communication Defined,” “Scholarly Communication in Crisis,” “The ACRL Scholarly Communications Initiative,” “Principles Supported,” and “Strategies supported.”

Wellcome Trust Position Statement, Oct. 2003, updated Sept. 2005, by a U.K.-based independent research-funding charity “in support of open and unrestricted access to published research.”

Berlin Declaration, Oct. 2003, conference of major European fund givers on open access to knowledge in the sciences and humanities.  “Our mission of disseminating knowledge is only half complete if the information is not made widely and readily available to society.  New possibilities of knowledge dissemination not only through the classical form but also and increasingly through the open access paradigm via the Internet have to be supported.”

Geneva Declaration of Principles and Plan of Action, U.N. Summit on the Information Society, World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS), WSIS Phase I, Dec. 2003, Geneva, “Declaration of Principles.  Building the Information Society:  a global challenge in the new Millennium.”   Includes “Our common Vision of the Information Society,” “An Information Society for All:  Key Principles,” and “Towards an Information Society for All Based on Shared Knowledge.”  “Plan of Action.”
http://www.itu.int/wsis/documents/doc_single-en-1161.asp (Available Languages and Formats)
http://www.itu.int/wsis/docs/geneva/official/dop.html (Declaration of Principles)
http://www.itu.int/wsis/docs/geneva/official/poa.html (Plan of Action)

OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) Declaration, Science, Technology and Innovation for the 21st Century.  Meeting of the OECD Committee for Scientific and Technological Policy at Ministerial Level, Jan. 2004.  Includes “access to research data” statement.”  “Ministers recognised that fostering broader, open access to and wide use of research data will enhance the quality and productivity of science systems worldwide.”  See Annex 1, “Declaration on access to research data from public funding.”

IFLA Statement, Feb. 2004, “IFLA Statement on Open Access to Scholarly Literature and Research Documentation.”  IFLA “is committed to ensuring the widest possible access to information for all peoples in accordance with the principles expressed in the Glasgow Declaration of Libraries, Information Services and Intellectual Freedom.”

Washington D.C. Principles, March 2004, for Free Access to Science.  “Not-for-Profit Publishers Commit to Providing Free Access to Research.”

Australian Group of Eight (Vice-Chancellors) Statement, May 2004, “Statement on open access to scholarly information.”

Berlin 2 Open Access, May 2004, “Steps Toward Implementation of the Berlin Declaration.”  Conference synopsis

UK Government Science and Technology Committee, July 2004, see “Accessibility of Research.”

Scottish Declaration on Open Access, Oct. 2004, last updated Feb. 2005, OATS, Open Access Team for Scotland.  “We believe that the interests of Scotland will be best served by the rapid adoption of open access to scientific and research literature.”

Berlin 3 Open Access, Agreed Recommendations, March 2005, at the University of Southampton, UK.  “Progress in Implementing the Berlin Declaration on Open Access to Knowledge in the Sciences and Humanities.”  “In order to implement the Berlin Declaration, institutions should implement a policy to:  1. Require their researchers to deposit a copy of all their published articles in an open access repository and 2. Encourage their researchers to publish their research articles in open access journals where a suitable journal exists (and provide the support to enable that to happen).”

Lawrence Lessig Pledge—Never Again, March 2005.  “I will not agree to publish in any academic journal that does not permit me the freedoms of at least a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial license.”

The National Institute of Health (NIH) Policy on Enhancing Public Access to Archived Publications Resulting from NIH-Funded Research (Public Access Policy) took effort May 2005.  It “requests and strongly encourages all investigators to make their NIH-funded peer-reviewed, author’s final manuscript available to other researches and the public through the NIH National Library of Medicine’s (NLM) PubMed Central (PMC) immediately after the final date of journal publication.”

Research Councils UK’s (RCUK) Proposed Policy on Access to Research Outputs, June, 2005.

Adelphi Charter on Creativity, Innovation and Intellectual Property, Oct. 2005, published by the Royal Society for the Encouragement of Arts, Manufactures and Commerce.  Endorses open access.

WSIS, Phase 2, Final Documents, Tunis, Nov. 2005, “reiterate our unequivocal support for the Geneva Declaration of Principles and Plan of Action.”

Fellows of the Royal Society Open Letter to Lord Martin Rees, Dec. 2005, protesting the Royal Society’s position statement on open access:  (1) Royal Society’s position statement:  http://www.royalsoc.ac.uk/page.asp?id=3882 and (2) Open letter to Lord Rees:  http://www.frsopenletter.org/

CERN (the European Organization for Nuclear Research, the world’s largest particle physics center)--Action on Open Access, Dec. 2005, ”representatives of several major physics publishers, European particle physics laboratories, learned societies, funding agencies and authors from Europe and the US, came together for the first time to promote open access publishing.”
http://cern.ch/OA/20051207/20051207_agenda.html (Details of the Meeting)
http://open-access.web.cern.ch/Open-Access/ (CERN Action on Open Access)

European Research Consortium for Informatics and Mathematics (ERCIM)—ERCIM Statement, January 2006.

93rd Indian Science Congress (Hyderabad)—January 2006 “recommendation for an Optimal National Open Access Policy, which includes a call for all publicly-funded research in India be deposited in OA repositories.”
https://mx2.arl.org/Lists/SPARC-OAForum/Message/2713.html style='color:#0000D0'>

3.  Selected Organizations, Projects, Campaigns, and Initiatives to Reform the Scholarly Communication System

The Alliance for Taxpayer Access is an “alliance of organizations representing taxpayers, patients, physicians, researchers, and institutions that support open public access to taxpayer-funded research.”

American Council of Learned Societies (ACLS) main mission is to "advance humanistic studies in all fields of learning in the humanities and the social sciences and to maintain and strengthen relations among the national societies devoted to such studies."

ARROW—Australian Research Repositories Online to the World.  “The ARROW project will identify and test software or solutions to support best practice institutional digital repositories comprising e-print, digital theses and electronic publishing.”

ArXiv “is an e-print service in the fields of physics, mathematics, non-linear science, computer science, and quantitative biology.”

Association of Learned and Professional Society Publishers (ALPSP) “serves, represents and strengthens the community of not-for-profit publishers, demonstrating their essential role in the future of international academic and professional communication.

Author’s Addendum “is a form you use to amend the document that your publisher asks you to sign.”  “By using this form you “retain the right to make your article available in a non-commercial open digital archive on the Web.”

Berkeley Electronic Press “produces tools to improve scholarly communication.  These tools provide innovative and effective means of content production and dissemination.”

BioMed Central “is an independent publishing house committed to providing immediate open access to peer-reviewed biomedical research.”

Canada’s International Development Research Center (IDRC) establishes an OA depository.

CLOCKSS Project serves as a failsafe repository for published scholarly content.

Create Change “has as its core goal to make scholarly research as accessible as possible to scholars all over the world, to their students, and to others who might derive value from it.”

Creative Commons “is a nonprofit organization that offers flexible copyright licenses for creative works.”

Daedalus—Data-providers for Academic E-content and the Disclosure of Assets for Learning, Understanding and Scholarship.

ePrints UK Project

eScholarship repository program “facilitates innovation and supports experiementation in the production and dissemination of scholarship.  Through the use of innovative technology, the program is working to improve all aspects of scholarly communication, including its creation, peer review, management, dissemination, and preservation.”

HighWire Press “hosts the largest repository of free, full-text, peer-reviewed content.”

Information Access Alliance believes that “access to a broad array of research information is critical to the health and wealth of society.”

International Consortium for the Advancement of Academic Publication (ICAAP) is  “focused on creating technologies to facilitate sophisticated delivery of educational content.”

Internet Archive “is building a digital library of Internet sites and other cultural artifacts in digital form.”

OAI-PMH, the Open Archive Initiative’s Protocol for Metadata Harvesting, UK.  See Project RoMEO.

Open Access Now campaigns “for freedom of research information.”

Open Access Working Group

Open Archives Initiative (OAI) “develops and promotes interoperability standards that aim to facilitate the efficient dissemination of content.”

Open Content Alliance “represents the collaborative efforts of a group of cultural, technology, non-profit, and governmental organizations from around the world that will help build a permanent archive of multilingual digitized text and multimedia content.”

Project DARE (Digital Academic Repositories)/DAREnet “gives digital access to academic research output in the Netherlands.”

Project DARE launches NARCIS (National Academic Research and Collaborations Information System) as a gateway to Dutch scientific research; and DARLIN (Dutch Archive for Library and Information Science), a new OA repository for Dutch publications in library and information science.
http://www.narcis.info/narcis/?language=en  (NARCIS)
http://www.nvb-darlin.nl/en/  (DARLIN)

Project RoMEO—Rights Metadata for Open Archiving—This 2003 project investigated “the rights issues surrounding the “self-archiving” of research in the UK academic community under the Open Archive Initiative’s Protocol for Metadata Harvesting.”

Project SHERPA “is investigating issues in the future of scholarly communication and publishing.   In particular, it is developing open-access institutional repositories in a number of research universities.”

Public Knowledge “works for open access to (1) taxpayer-funded research and (2) research that scientists and scholars consent to publish without payment.”

Public Knowledge Project “is a federally funded research initiative located at the University of British Columbia and Simon Fraser University on the west coast of Canada. It seeks to improve the scholarly and public quality of academic research through innovative online environments.”

Public Library of Science “is a nonprofit organization of scientists and physicians committed to making the world’s scientific and medical literature a public resource.”

PubMed Central “is a digital archive of life sciences journal literature at the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH), developed and managed by NIH’s National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) in the National Library of Medicine (NLM).  With PubMed Central, NLM is taking the lead in preserving and maintaining unrestricted access to the electronic literature, just as it has done for decades with the printed biomedical literature.”

SciELO—Scientific Electronic Library Online

Scholarly Publishing and Academic Resources Coalition (SPARC) “is an alliance of universities, research libraries, and organizations.”  “SPARC serves as a catalyst for action, helping to create systems that expand information dissemination and use in a networked digital environment while responding to the needs of academe.”

TARDIS--Targeting Academic Research for Deposit and Disclosure

4.  Information on How You Can Promote Change

“At the Speed of Thought” by Mike Sosteric (founder of the ICAAP)

“The Case for Institutional Repositories:  A SPARC Position Paper” by Raym Crow

“Create Change” brochure

“Declaring Independence:  Returning Scientific Publishing to Scientists” by Allison Buckholtz

“Electronic Journals:  The Grand Information Future?” by Mike Sosteric

“For Whom the Gate Tolls?  How and Why to Free the Refereed Research Literature Online through Author/Institution Self-Archiving, Now” by Stevan Harnad

“Freedom from the Press” by Mike Sosteric

“The Function of the Electronic Journal (EJ) in the Academic Process:  An Appraisal” by William W. Bostock

“Gaining Independence”

“Guide to Business Planning for Launching a New Open Access Journal”

“Igniting Change in Scholarly Communication:  SPARC, Its’ Past, Present, and Future” by Mary M. Case, Director, Office of Scholarly Communication, Association of Research Libraries (ARL)

“Open Access” brochure

“Post-Gutenberg Galaxy:  The Fourth Revolution in the Means of Production of Knowledge” by Stevan Harnad

“Post-Gutenberg Galaxy:  How to Get there from Here” by Stevan Harnad

“A strategy for open access to society publications” by Jim Pitman

“What you can do to promote open access” by Peter Suber

“Where Scholars Fear to Tread:  The Inertia of Academic ePublication” by Timothy McGettigan

5.  Metadata Standards

Dublin Core Metadata Initiative (DCMI)

Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) metadata


Open Language Archives Community (OLAC)

6.  Developer Declaration of Independence

The Open Group

7.  Open Source Tools--Applications, Packages, Platforms, Products, Systems, and Software

Archimede–A Canadian software solution for institutional repositories.

ARNO–Academic Research in the Netherlands Online.

CDSware—“CDSware, the integrated digital library system, is a suite of applications which provides the framework and tools for building and managing an autonomous digital library server.”

Digital Commons—ProQuest—Launch OA Repositories

DiVA, the Digital Scientific Archive (Digitala Vetenskapliga Arkivet in Swedish)

DPubS—Digital Publishing System—“DPubS (Digital Publishing System) is a powerful and flexible open-source system for publishing digital documents.”

DSpace—“The DSpace digital repository system captures, stores, indexes, preserves, and distributes digital research material.”

EPrints—“The EPrints software creates OAI-Compliant Archives.”

ePublishing Toolkit—“The ePublishing Toolkit is a software package providing tools to help in publishing scientific content on the web.”

Fedora—“Fedora open source software gives organizations a flexible service-oriented architecture for managing and delivering their digital content. At its core is a powerful digital object model that supports multiple views of each digital object and the relationships among digital objects.”

GAPWorks—“GAPworks is the online publication system developed in the GAP project (funded by the German Research Foundation, DFG).”

Hyperjournal—“The HyperJournal is an Open Source software application which enables on-line as well as printed publishing in an innovative and significantly cost-cutting way.”

iTor –Tools and Technologies for Open Repositories, Netherlands Institute for Scientific Information Services.

List of OAI Tools

LOCKSS Program, open source peer to peer software.

MyCoRe –A core bundle of oftware tools developed at the University of Essen.

OpenACS—“OpenACS (Open Architecture Community System) is a toolkit for building scalable, community-oriented web applications.”

Open Journal Systems—“Open Journal Systems (OJS) is a journal management and publishing system that has been developed by the Public Knowledge Project through its federally funded efforts to expand and improve access to research. OJS assists with every stage of the refereed publishing process, from submissions through to online publication and indexing.”

OPUS –Online Publications of the University of Stuttgart.

Scholarly Exchange, the Free Open-Source Journal Publishing Platform

SOPS—“SciX Open Publishing Services (SOPS) is software that allows setting up various on-line scientific publishing media.”

8.  Information on Copyright and Licenses

Creative Commons Licenses

“An Education in ©opyright Law:  A Primer for Cyberspace” by Robert N. Diotalevi

“Stealing the Goose:  Copyright and Learning” by Rory McGreal

Piet Zwart Institute, Open Content Licenses

Publisher Copyright Policies and Self-Archiving

9.  Open Educational Resources

“Free Access to Open Materials for Teaching, Learning and Research”

10.  Open Access Timeline

Timeline of the Open Access Movement, written and revised by Peter Suber, Research Professor of Philosophy at Earlham College and Open Access Project Director, formerly called the Timeline of the Free Online Scholarship Movement

11. Directories

Directory of Mathematics Preprint and e-Print Servers

Directory of Open Access Journals

“Electronic Collection,” Library and Archives Canada, formerly the National Library of Canada

Free Full Text

Free Medical Journals

HighWire Press, Stanford University:  Free Online Full-text Articles

OpenDOAR—the Directory of Open Access Repositories

NewJour –Search

ROAR--Registry of Open Access Repositories, formerly called Tim Brody’s Institutional Archives Registry

Szczepanski’s List of OA Journals

12.  Open Access Forums, Blogs, and News

American Scientist Open Access Forum: A complete Hyper-mail archive of the ongoing discussion of providing open access to the peer-reviewed research literature online (1998-2005) is available at:
To join or leave the Forum or change your subscription address:
Post discussion to:

Budapest Open Access Initiative Forum

OA Librarian

Open Access News

PLEIADI: Portal for the Italian Electronic Literature in Open and Institutional Archives

SPARC Open Access Forum

SPARC Open Access Newsletter

13.  Open Access Bibliographies and Webliographies

“Open Access Bibliography:  Liberating Scholarly Literature with E-Prints and Open Access Journals” by Charles W. Bailey, Jr.

“Open Access Webliography” by Adrian K. Ho and Charles W. Bailey, Jr.

“Scholarly Electronic Publishing Bibliography” by Charles W. Bailey, Jr.

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